Fabrice Kengnia, Siméon P.C. Fodouopa, b, Donald S. Talaa, Merline N. Djimelia, Charles Fokunangc, Donatien Gatsinga
Context: Harungana madagascariensis Lam is commonly used in Cameroonian folk medicine for the treatment of malaria and typhoid fever.
Objective: To investigate the therapeutic potentials of H. madagascariensis aqueous leaf extract for the treatment of salmonellosis (e.g. typhoid fever, gastroenteritis).
Materials and methods: A Salmonella Typhimurium-infected rat model was used. The faeces of these rats were analysed for viable Salmonella Typhimurium before and after infection, and during the treatment period. The physiological, biochemical and histopathological markers of possible side effects of the extract were also studied using standard methods and kits.
Results and discussion: The in vivo antisalmonellal study revealed that this extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced the number of viable Salmonella Typhimurium recovered from faeces, and could stop salmonellosis after 10 days of treatment for male and female rats, with non-toxic doses. However, the biochemical and histological analyses revealed that at relatively high-doses (≥100 mg/kg for females and 200 mg/kg for males) the extract could induce liver damage, as illustrated by a rise of serum transaminases (ALT and AST), significant inflammation of the parenchyma and portal vein, as well as cell necrosis. There were also increases in cholesterol levels in both sexes. No significant unwanted side effect of the extract was observed on the kidney, as shown by both serum and urinary creatinine, and urinary protein levels.
Conclusion: The results obtained showed that H. madagascariensis has a promising antisalmonellal effect and, therefore, the potential to provide an effective treatment against salmonellosis, including typhoid fever.
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